PRINCIPLES OF SURVEYING: Surveying – Definition; primary divisions, classification
– Principles of surveying – Scales used for maps and plans – Duties of a surveyor – Errors:
accuracy and precision – Sources and types of errors.
ANGLES, AZIMUTHS AND BEARINGS: Units of angle measurement – Meridians,
azimuths bearings – Magnetic declination, Local attraction and corrections to angles and
bearing of lines.
TYPES OF SURVEYING: Introduction to Chain, Compass and Plan Table Survey.

LEVELLING: Introduction – Basic definitions – Methods of leveling – Leveling instruments:
dumpy level, levelling staff – Temporary adjustments of dumpy level – Theory of simple and
differential leveling – Level field book – Classification of direct leveling methods – Reciprocal
leveling – Profile leveling – Cross sectioning – Curvature and Refraction – Difficulties in
leveling – Errors in leveling, degree of precision.CONTOURING: Introduction – Contour interval – Characteristics of contours – Methods of locating contours – Direct and indirect methods: Interpolation and sketching of contours -Contour gradient- Uses of contour maps.

THEODOLITE: Vernier Theodolite: Basic definitions – Fundamental lines and desired
relations – Temporary adjustments – Measurement of a horizontal angle – Repetition and
reiteration methods of horizontal angle measurement – Measurement of vertical angle –
Sources of errors in Theodolite survey – Traversing – Omitted measurements – Closing error –
Determination of the level of the top of an object, when its base is accessible and inaccessible- Determination of the height of the object when the two instrument stations are not in the same vertical plane.
TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING: Definitions – Advantages of tachometric surveying –
Basic systems of tachometric measurement – Determination of constants K and C – Inclined
sight with staff vertical – Inclined sight with staff normal to the line of sight – Movable hair
method – Tangential method.

CURVES: Simple curves – Definitions and notations – Designation of a curve – Elements of
simple curves – Methods of setting simple curves: Rankine’s method, Two theodolite method
– Compound curves – Elements of compound curve – Reverse curves – Elements of reverse
curve – Relationship between various elements.

ELECTRONIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS: Introduction – Basic ConceptsElectromagnetic
waves – Basic definitions – Phase of the wave, units, types of waves –
Distance from measurement of transit time – Computing the distance from the phase
differences – EDM instruments – Electronic theodolites – Total station: models, fundamental
measurements, recording, traversing, data retrieval.

1. Surveying Vol-I, 16th Edition, Punmia B. C, Laxmi Publications.
2. Surveying Vol-II, 15th Edition, Punmia B.C, Laxmi Publications.
3. Surveying and Leveling, 2nd Edition, Basak N.N, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing
Company Ltd.
1. Surveying and levelling part I & II, 23rd Edition, Kanetkar.T.P. & S.V. Kulkarni, Puna
Vidyarthi Girha, Prakashan,
2. Fundamentals of Surveying and Levelling, 1st Edition, R. Subramanian, Oxford
University Press, India
3. Surveying Vol-I, 10th Edition, Arora K. R, Rajsons Publications Pvt. Ltd.

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