hydraulics and hydraulic machinery

(16CE113)

UNIT-I

OPEN CHANNEL FLOW UNIFORM FLOW: Introduction – Differences between pipe flow and open channel flow – Classification of flows – Types of channels – Flow analysis: The Chezy‟s equation, Empirical formulae for the Chezy‟s constant – Hydraulically efficient channel sections.

NON-UNIFORM FLOW: Concept of specific energy: Specific energy curves – Critical flow – Critical flow in a rectangular channel – Critical slope – Discharge curve -Different slope conditions – Channel transitions – Specific force – Specific force curve.

UNIT-II

GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW: Introduction – Dynamic equation -Dynamic equation for GVF in wide rectangular channel – Classification of channel bottom slopes – Surface profiles – Characteristics of surface profiles – Back water curves and Draw down curves -Examples of various types of water surface profiles – Control section – Computation of surface profiles by step method.

RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW: Hydraulic jump – Elements and characteristics of hydraulic jump – Hydraulic jump in rectangular channels Height and length of the jump – Energy loss in a hydraulic jump – Types of hydraulic jump Applications of hydraulic jump. UNIT III

IMPACT OF JETS: Hydrodynamic force of jets on stationary and moving flat inclined and curved vanes – jet striking centrally and at tip – Velocity triangles at inlet and outlet – Expressions for work done and efficiency- Angular momentum principle – Torque and head transferred into dynamic machines.

UNIT-IV
HYDRAULIC TURBINES-I:Introduction – Layout of Hydro-electric power plant – Types
of hydro power plants – Head and efficiencies of hydraulic turbines -Classification of
turbines – Pelton wheel: parts – Velocity triangles, work done and efficiency – Design of
Pelton wheel – Radial flow reaction turbines -Francis turbine: main components and
working -Work done and efficiencies – Design proportions – Design of Francis turbine
runner.
HYDRAULIC TURBINES-II: Kaplan turbine: main components and working – Working
proportions – Draft tube: theory and efficiency – Specific speed -Cavitation: causes, effects –
Unit quantities and performance of characteristic curves of a turbine.
UNIT-V
HYDRAULIC PUMPS: Introduction – Component parts and working of a centrifugal pump,
Work done by the impeller: heads, losses and efficiencies, minimum starting speed, Priming;
specific speed, Cavitation effects, Multistage centrifugal pumps, troubles and remediesReciprocating pumps.
DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILITUDE: Introduction – Dimensions:
dimensional homogeneity – Methods of dimensional analysis- Rayleigh‟s method –
Buckingham – Pi theorem. Similitude – Types of Similarities. Model Laws.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Flow in Open Channels, 3rd Edition, K Subramanya, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing
Company Limited.
2. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics Including Hydraulics Machines (A-4-Size), 20th
Edition, Dr. P.N. Modi & Dr. S.M. Seth, Standard Book House
3. A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines, 9th Edition, Dr. R. K.
Bansal, Laxmi Publications
REFERENCES:
1. Fluid Mechanics, 9th Edition, Victor Streeter, E. Benjamin Wylie, K.W. Bedford,
McGraw Hill Education
2. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, 1st Edition, C.S.P.Ojha, P.N. Chandamouli & R.
Berndtsson, Oxford University Press
3. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines, 1st Edition, S. C. Gupta, Pearson India
Education Services Pvt. Ltd.
4. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, 1st Edition, Rama Durgaiah D., New Age
International

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