Fluid Properties: Dimensions and units – Definition of a fluid – Physical properties of fluidsDensity,Specific weight, Specific volume, Specific gravity, Compressibility, Vapour
pressure, Surface tension and capillarity and viscosity.
Fluid Statics: Pascal’s law – Pressure variation in a static fluid – Atmospheric, gauge and
absolute pressures, Measurement of pressure – Piezometer – U–tube and inverted U–tube
manometers and Bourdon’s pressure gauge, hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surfaces,center of pressure.

Fluid Kinematics: Types of flow – Streamline – Streak line – Path line – Stream tube –
Control volume – Continuity equation in one and three dimensional forms – Stream function
and velocity potential function – Flow net – Acceleration of a fluid particle – Local and
convective accelerations – Tangential and normal accelerations.
Fluid Dynamics: Euler’s equation of motion along a streamline – Bernoulli’s energy
equation – Energy correction factor – Impulse momentum equation – Momentum correction
factor – Force on a bend – Energy gradient line – Hydraulic gradient line – Analysis of free
liquid jets – Forced vortex and free vortex.

Analysis of pipe Flow: Forces acting on open pipe and buried pipe, minor losses in pipe flow
– Pipes in series and parallel – Siphon – Pipe networks –Velocity distribution for turbulent
flow in pipes – Rough and smooth pipes – Darcy Welsbach equation – Variation of friction
factor – Moody’s chart.

Flow Measurement: Velocity measurement by Pitot tube and Pitot static tube – Discharge
measurement by Venturimeter and orifice meter – Orifices and mouthpieces – Flow over
rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal and stepped notches – Broad crested weirs.

Laminar Flow: Reynolds’ experiment – Regimes of flow – Laminar flow, turbulent flow,
transitional flow – Reynolds’ number – Laminar flow through circular pipes – Hagen
Poiseuille equation – Laminar flow through parallel plates – Introduction of Hardy Cross
Boundary Layer Theory: Concept of boundary layer flow- Boundary layer along a thin flat
plate – Boundary layer separation and its control – Flow around submerged objects-Drag and

1. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics Including Hydraulics Machines (A-4-Size), 20th
Edition, Dr. P.N. Modi & Dr. S.M. Seth, Standard Book House
2. A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines, 9th Edition, Dr. R. K.
Bansal, Laxmi Publications
1. Fluid Mechanics, 9th Edition, Victor Streeter, E. Benjamin Wylie, K.W. Bedford,
McGraw Hill Education
2. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, 1st Edition, C.S.P. Ojha, P.N. Chandamouli & R.
Berndtsson, Oxford University Press
3. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines, 1st Edition, S. C. Gupta, Pearson India
Education Services Pvt. Ltd.
4. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, 1st Edition, Rama Durgaiah D., New Age

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