Introduction-Database System Applications, Purpose of Database Systems, View of Data –
Data Abstraction, Instances and Schemas, Data Models, Database Languages – DDL, DML,
Database Architecture, Database Users and Administrators, History of Data base Systems.
Introduction to Data base design , ER diagrams, Beyond ER Design, Entities, Attributes
and Entity sets, Relationships and Relationship sets, Additional features of ER Model,
Conceptual Design with the ER Model, Conceptual Design for Large enterprises.
Relational Model: Introduction to the Relational Model – Integrity Constraints over
Relations, Enforcing Integrity constraints, Querying relational data, Logical data base Design,
Introduction to Views Destroying/ altering Tables and Views.

Relational Algebra and Calculus: Relational Algebra – Selection and Projection, Set
operations, Renaming, Joins, Division, Examples of Algebra Queries, Relational calculus –
Tuple relational Calculus – Domain relational calculus – Expressive Power of Algebra and
Form of Basic SQL Query – Examples of Basic SQL Queries, Introduction to Nested
Queries, Correlated Nested Queries, Set – Comparison Operators, Aggregate Operators,
NULL values – Comparison using Null values – Logical connectives – AND, OR and NOT –
Impact on SQL Constructs, Outer Joins, Disallowing NULL values, Complex Integrity
Constraints in SQL Triggers and Active Data bases.
Introduction to Schema Refinement – Problems Caused by redundancy, Decompositions –
Problem related to decomposition, Functional Dependencies – Reasoning about FDS, Normal
Forms – FIRST, SECOND, THIRD Normal forms – BCNF – Properties of Decompositions –
Loss less join Decomposition, Dependency preserving Decomposition, Schema Refinement
in Data base Design – Multi valued Dependencies – FOURTH Normal Form, Join
Dependencies, FIFTH Normal form, Inclusion Dependencies.
Transaction Management – Transaction Concept – Transaction State – Implementation of
Atomicity and Durability – Concurrent – Executions – Serializability – Recoverability –
Implementation of Isolation – Testing for serializability.
Concurrency Control – Lock – Based Protocols – Timestamp Based Protocols – Validation –
Based Protocols – Multiple Granularity.
Recovery System-Failure Classification-Storage Structure-Recovery and Atomicity – Log –
Based Recovery – Recovery with Concurrent Transactions – Buffer Management – Failure
with loss of nonvolatile storage – Advance Recovery systems – Remote Backup systems.
Overview of Storage and Indexing: Data on External Storage, File Organization and
Indexing – Clustered Indexes, Primary and Secondary Indexes, Index data Structures – Hash
Based Indexing, Tree based Indexing, Comparison of File Organizations.
Tree Structured Indexing: Intuitions for tree indexes, Indexed Sequential Access
Methods(ISAM) B+ Trees: A Dynamic Index Structure, Search, Insert, Delete.
Hash Based Indexing: Static Hashing, Extendable hashing, Linear Hashing, Extendible vs.
Linear Hashing.

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