**ECONOMIC OPERATION**

Optimal Operation of Thermal Power Units, – Heat Rate Curve – Cost Curve – Incremental Fuel and Production Costs, Input-Output Characteristics, Optimum Generation Allocation with Line Losses Neglected. Optimum Generation Allocation Including the Effect of Transmission Line Losses – Loss Coefficients, General Transmission Line Loss Formula.

**HYDROTHERMAL SCHEDULING**

Optimal Scheduling of Hydrothermal System: Hydroelectric Power Plant Models, Scheduling Problems-Short Term Hydrothermal Scheduling Problem. Modeling of Turbine: First Order Turbine Model, Block Diagram Representation of Steam Turbines and Approximate Linear Models. Modeling of Governor: Mathematical Modeling of Speed Governing System – Derivation of Small Signal Transfer Function – Block Diagram.

**LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL**

Necessity of Keeping Frequency Constant. Definitions of Control Area – Single Area Control – Block Diagram Representation of an Isolated Power System – Steady State Analysis – Dynamic Response – Uncontrolled Case. Load Frequency Control of 2-Area System – Uncontrolled Case and Controlled Case, Tie-Line Bias Control. Proportional Plus Integral Control of Single Area and Its Block Diagram Representation, Steady State Response – Load Frequency Control and Economic Dispatch Control.

**REACTIVE POWER CONTROL**

Overview of Reactive Power Control – Reactive Power Compensation in Transmission Systems – Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Compensating Equipment for Transmission Systems; Load Compensation – Specifications of Load Compensator, Uncompensated and Compensated Transmission Lines: Shunt and Series Compensation.

**POWER SYSTEM OPERATION IN COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT**

Introduction – Restructuring models – Independent System Operator (ISO) – Power Exchange – Market operations – Market Power – Standard cost – Transmission Pricing

Congestion Pricing – Management of Inter zonal/Intra zonal Congestion – Electricity Price Volatility Electricity Price Indexes – Challenges to Electricity Pricing – Construction of Forward Price Curves – Short-time Price Forecasting

**Complete Notes – View/Download**

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