Operating Systems


UNIT I Operating Systems Overview: What is an operating system, history of operating systems, Operating system functions, Operating systems Operations, Types of Operating Systems, Computing Environments. System Structures: Operating System Services, User and Operating-System Interface, systems calls, Types of System Calls, system programs, Structure of an OS – Layered, Monolithic, Microkernel Operating Systems, Concept of Virtual Machine. Case study on UNIX and WINDOWS Operating System.

UNIT II Processes: Definition, Process Relationship, Different states of a Process, Process State transitions, Process Control Block (PCB), Context switching. Processes Scheduling: Foundation and Scheduling objectives, Types of Schedulers, Scheduling criteria: CPU utilization, Throughput, Turnaround Time, Waiting Time, Response Time; Scheduling algorithms: Pre-emptive and Non pre-emptive, FCFS, SJF, RR; Multiprocessor scheduling. Threads: Definition, Various states, Benefits of threads, Types of threads, Concept of multithreads.

UNIT III Process Synchronization: Inter process Communication, Critical Section, Race Conditions, Mutual Exclusion, Hardware Solution, Strict Alternation, Peterson’s Solution, The ProducerConsumer Problem, Semaphores, Monitors, Message Passing, Classical IPC Problems: Reader’s & Writer Problem, Dinning Philosopher Problem Deadlocks: Definition, Necessary and sufficient conditions for Deadlock, Deadlock Prevention, Deadlock Avoidance: Banker’s algorithm, Deadlock detection and Recovery.

UNIT IV Memory Management: Basic concept, Logical and Physical address map, Memory allocation: Contiguous Memory allocation – Fixed and variable partition– Internal and External fragmentation and Compaction, Paging, Segmentation. Virtual memory: Basics of Virtual Memory ,Demand paging, page-replacement, Page Replacement algorithms, Thrashing. Disk Management: Disk structure, Disk scheduling – FCFS, SSTF, SCAN, C-SCAN.

UNIT V File Management: Concept of File, Access methods, File types, File operation, Directory structure, File System structure, Allocation methods (contiguous, linked, indexed), Freespace management (bit vector, linked list, grouping), directory implementation (linear list, hash table).

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