**MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION LINES:**Introduction, Microwave spectrum and bands, applications of Microwaves.Rectangular Waveguides-Solution of Wave Equation in Rectangular Coordinates, TE/TM mode analysis, Expressions for fields, Characteristic equation and cutoff frequencies, filter characteristics, dominant and degenerate modes, sketches of TE and TM mode fields in the cross-section.Mode characteristics- Phase and Group velocities, wavelengths and impedance relations,IllustrativeProblems.

**Rectangular Waveguides**– Power Transmission and Power Losses, Impossibility of TEM Modes, Micro strip lines-introduction, Z0 relations, effective dielectric constant, losses, Q-factor, Cavity resonators-introduction, Rectangular and cylindrical cavities, dominant modes and resonant frequencies, Q-factor and coupling coefficients,IllustrativeProblems.

**WAVEGUIDE COMPONENTS AND APPLICATIONS**:Coupling mechanisms- probe, loop, aperture types. Wave guide discontinuities-waveguide Windows, tuning screws and posts, matched loads. Waveguide attenuators-resistive card, rotary vane Attenuators; waveguide phase shifters-dielectric, rotary vane phase shifters. Wave guide multiport junctions-E plane and H plane Tees, Magic Tee, Directional couplers-2 hole, Bothe hole types,IllustrativeProblems.

Ferrites-composition and characteristics, Faraday rotation; Ferrite components-Gyrator, Isolator, Circulator.

**MICROWAVE TUBES:**Limitations and losses of conventional tubes at microwave frequencies. Microwave tubes-O type and M type classifications. O type tubes: 2 cavity klystrons-structure, Reentrant cavities, velocity modulation process and Applegate diagram, bunching process and small signal theory-Expressions for O/P power and efficiency. Reflex Klystrons-structure, Velocity Modulation, Applegate diagram, mathematical theory of bunching, power output, efficiency , oscillating modes and O/P characteristics, Effect of Repeller Voltage on Power O/P,IllustrativeProblems.

**HELIX TWTS: **Significance, types and characteristics of slow wave structures; structure of TWT and amplification process (qualitative treatment), suppression of oscillations, gain considerations.

**M-TYPE TUBES: **Introduction, cross field effects, Magnetrons-different types, cylindrical travelling wave magnetron-Hull cutoff and Hartree conditions, modes of resonance and PI-mode operation, separation of PI-mode, O/P characteristics,IllustrativeProblems.

**MICROWAVE SOLID STATE DEVICES**: Introduction,classification, applications, Transfer Electronic Devices, Gunn diode-principles, RWH theory, characteristics, basic modes of operation – Gunn oscillation modes. LSA Mode, Varactor Diode, Parametric Amplifier, Introduction to Avalanche Transit time devices (brief treatment only).

**MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS:**

Scattering Matrix-Significance, Formulation and properties. S Matrix calculations for 2- port junction, E plane and H plane Tees, Magic Tee, Directional coupler, circulator and Isolator,IllustrativeProblems

Description of Microwave bench-different blocks and their features, errors and precautions; Microwave power measurement-Bolometers, Measurement of attenuation, frequency standing wave measurements –measurement of low and high VSWR, cavity- Q, impedance measurements.

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