INTRODUCTON TO ‘C’ PROGRAM

Published by Akshaya.Balineni on

'C' LANGUAGE INTRODUCTON

  • C is a procedural programming language. It was initially developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973.
  • It was mainly developed as a system programming language to write operating system.
  • The main features of C language include low-level access to memory, simple set of keywords, and clean style, these features make C language suitable for system programming like operating system or compiler development.
  • Many later languages have borrowed syntax/features directly or indirectly from C language. Like syntax of Java, PHP, JavaScript and many other languages is mainly based on C language. C++ is nearly a superset of C language (There are few programs that may compile in C, but not in C++).

Beginning with 'C' programming:

Writing first program:

#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)

{

    printf(“CREATIVE STELLARS”);

    return 0;

}

OUTPUT :  CREATIVE STELLARS

LET US ANALYSE THE PROGRAM LINE BY LINE

Line 1: [ #include <stdio.h> ] 

  • In a C program, all lines that start with # are processed by preprocessowhich is a program invoked by the compiler.
  • In a very basic term, preprocessor takes a C program and produces another C program.
  • The produced program has no lines starting with #, all such lines are processed by the preprocessor.
  • In the above example, preprocessor copies the preprocessed code of stdio.h to our file.
  • The ” .h ” files are called header files in C.
  • These header files generally contain declaration of functions. We need stdio.h for the function printf() used in the program.

Line 2 :[ int main(void) ]

  • There must to be starting point from where execution of compiled C program begins.
  • In C, the execution typically begins with first line of main().
  • The void written in brackets indicates that the main doesn’t take any parameter .
  • main() can be written to take parameters also.
  • We will be covering that in future posts.
  • The int written before main indicates return type of main().
  • The value returned by main indicates status of program termination.

Line 3 and 6: [ { and } ]

  • In C language, a pair of curly brackets define a scope and mainly used in functions and control statements like if, else, loops.
  • All functions must start and end with curly brackets.

Line 4 [ printf(“CREATIVE STELLARS”); ]

  • printf() is a standard library function to print something on standard output.
  • The semicolon at the end of printf indicates line termination. In C, semicolon is always used to indicate end of statement.


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