ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

16HS605

UNIT- I:

INTRODUCTION:
Definition, Scope and Importance-Need for Public Awareness
NATURAL RESOURCES:
Classification of resources-Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestationMining,dams and their effects on forests and tribal people – Waterresources – Use and over utilization of surface and ground water- Floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems – Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources –Energy resources: Renewable and Non- Renewable sources of
energy- Solar energy, Hydro electrical energy, Wind energy, Nuclear energy, etc.

UNIT-II:

ECOSYSTEMS:
Concept of an ecosystem– structural features of ecosystem- Producers, Consumers and Decomposers–-Biogeochemical cycles- Ecological succession-Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids – Energy flow in the ecosystem-Types of ecosystems (a) forest ecosystem (b) grassland ecosystem (c) desert ecosystem (d) aquatic ecosystems.

UNIT-III:

BIODIVERSITY AND ITS CONSERVATION:
Introduction, Definition, genetic, species and ecosystem diversity, Bio-geographical classification of India, India as a Mega-diversity Nation, Hot spots of biodiversity, Value of biodiversity, threats to biodiversity, endemic, endangered and extinct species of India, In-Situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.

UNIT-IV:

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:
Natural Disasters: Droughts, Floods, Cyclone, Landslides, Earthquake, Pollution episodes: Air pollution, Water pollution, Land pollution, Noise pollution, Automobile pollution and Nuclear pollution –Effects-Global warming, Acid Rain and Ozone layer depletion and controlling measures. Global Environmental Issues: Population Growth, Urbanizations, Land Management, Water and Waste Water Management. Climate change and impacts on human environment Solid Waste Management: causes, effects and control measures of Municipal solid wastes – E-waste and management, Role of an individual in prevention of pollution – pollution case
studies.

UNIT-V:

ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION, LAWS, POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT:
Environmental Legislation, Environmental Protection act – Air Prevention and Control of Pollution act–Water Prevention and control of Pollution act– Wildlife protection act – Forest conservation act – Municipal Solid Waste management, International conventions/Protocols: Earth summit, Kyoto protocol and Montreal Protocol. From Unsustainable to sustainable development, Role of NGO’s for Sustainable development, Concepts of Green belt development, Role of IT in Environment-Remote Sensing and GIS methods for Sustainable development.

Field work– visit to a local area to document environmental assets-river forest grassland/hill,mountain and polluted sites (urban/rural/industrial/Agriculture) – study simple ecosystems(pond/river/hill slopes)

TEXT BOOKS:
1. A Text book on Environmental Sciences by Kaushik A and Kaushik C P 5th edition,New age international publishers, 2015.
2. Text Book of Environmental Science and Technology by Anji Reddy M, BS Publications, 2007.

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